Hooking up generally refers to having sex; however, many others indicated that when they say hooking up they are referring to something less than intercourse. Kimmel believes that while sexual promiscuity once existed on college campuses alongside more traditional forms of dating, hooking up is now "the alpha and omega of young adult romance.
Freitas has opined that a "hookup is a sexual act that thwarts meaning, purpose, and relationship. More than half of college relationships begin with a hookup, Bogle's research has found. Oftentimes, men and women seem to not be on the "same page. For instance, when a male student was asked if he felt that women looked for different components in a hookup; his response was that most females generally did not lean towards a "one and done" thing. Sociologist Wade  discusses several scholars who disagree that contemporary college students desire long-term monogamous relationships.
She cites Elizabeth Armstrong and Laura Hamilton,  Hanna Rosin,  and Kate Taylor  who posit that hookup culture is good for women as it frees them to focus on their studies and on their professional development for careers instead of seeking a long term partner or marriage.
Freitas believes the lessons imparted by hookup culture have "set back" students who often have little experience dating, and few skills in asking a romantic partner out as a result. Some studies have found that students, both men and women, overwhelmingly regret their hookups. Other studies found that many college students do not regret their hookup experiences. Wade interviewed many women and men who were enthusiastic about their hookup experiences. Some research shows that hookup regret is gendered, with women tending to regret hooking up much more than men do.
Regret from hooking up may be linked to negative emotional outcomes, especially in women. According to an article by Steven E. Rhoads, Laura Webber, et al. The American Psychological Association also says that hookups can result in guilt and negative feelings. In a study of sexually experienced men and women surveyed in singles bars, when presented with the statement, "I feel guilty or would feel guilty about having sexual intercourse with someone I had just met," 32 percent of men and 72 percent of women agreed.
Students who reported to Freitas that they were profoundly upset about hooking up say the encounters made them feel, among other things, used, miserable, disgusted, and duped. College students base their sexual ideas and sexual actions within a peer culture. This is where students who are peers are comparing and differing sexual situations in one's own life amongst each other to create a foundation for the current hookup culture.
This peer culture is not only amongst college students, but it may start to develop around the time puberty starts in middle school for both genders around the age of eleven to fourteen years old. In general, puberty is a time when sexuality and self-awareness becomes a main focus for individuals to formulate this aspect of their identity.
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Once in college, for most students, the parental aspect is diminished leaving a student feeling a high degree of freedom to truly explore and expand their whole personal identity , strongly including sexual identity in this "sexual arena. According to Bogle, the campuses her studies were done at had a common trend of college students being strongly interested in every other student's private life. The viewers of this activity process, interpret, and form assumptions about what was observed. These types of sexual activity or public displays of affection could be as meaningless as two individuals romantically speaking to each other in a high capacity location on campus or could be as extreme as two individuals walking into a bedroom together at a party.
This peer culture has evolved and escalated with access to rapid communication such as texting on cell phones and multiple social media applications. Most these social media applications are identity profiles, public thought disposals, and virtual photo albums of oneself, where other's are just a click away from cyber analysis of how that individual displays themselves physically, sexually, psychologically, emotionally, and mentally on the internet. Bogle states that the knowing of other's personal lives isn't just a purpose to gossip, but a way to observe, analyze, and be impacted by other's sexual actions, solely for the purpose of their own actions.
Some studies have made a connection between hookup culture and substance use.
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About a third of the students who reported engaging in vaginal, anal, or oral sex during a hookup reported being very intoxicated and another third reported being mildly intoxicated. Studies suggest that the degree of alcoholic intoxication directly correlates with the level of risky behavior.
Studies have generally shown that greater alcohol use is associated with more sexual activity in the course of a hookup. At the other end of the spectrum, the greatest alcohol consumption was associated with penetrative sex, and less alcohol consumption with non-penetrative hookups.
Hookup culture on college campuses is intertwined with a broader society. On the other hand, some sociologists have argued that hookup culture is a characteristic of the American college environment and does not reflect broader American youth culture, just as many college graduates stop engaging in hookups when they leave college preferring instead dating or other sexual arrangements. But evidence exists that young women are propelling it too. Hookup culture also exists outside of the college environment. Location-based geosocial networking smartphone applications, also known as hookup apps or dating apps, are increasingly being used to locate potential hookups.
Life course studies indicate that as people grow older and as they subjectively identify as adult, they are less likely to engage in casual sexual behavior. The American Academy of Pediatrics has argued that media representations of sexuality may influence teen sexual behavior,  and this view is supported by a number of studies. Cable television is filled with reality shows that depict an image of partying and glorified hookups, one of the most well known shows being MTV's Jersey Shore.
As the cost of personal computers dropped and online access has increased, Heldman and Wade, along with others, argue that internet pornography has "emerged as a primary influence on young people's, especially men's, attitudes towards sex and their own sexuality. There are many ideas as to why people think young adults are involved in this hookup culture, such as that they feel like they have to do it to fit in. However, many boys and girls did report that they do hookup with random people in order to find someone they could possibly start something serious with.
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There have also been a number of studies that have studied the mental aspects of casual hookups. In a study done by psychologist Seth Schwartz has shown results that say that people who had many random hookups had more psychological issues. They then came up with results that showed that penetrative sex hookups made people with greater feelings of depression and loneliness have a decrease in those symptoms and feelings.
For example, a study by Reiber and Garcia in show that a lot of people that engage in sexual hookups feel uncomfortable. Random hookups also have shown to cause feelings of pressure and performance anxiety in a study by Paul, et al. The continuation of the sexual double standard between men and women may be due to the motivations behind men and women's hook ups. While the sexual marketplace makes it seem that women hold all the power, most women report engaging in casual sex in order to satisfy their partners and increase the possibility of it turning into a long-term, monogamous relationship where men use casual sex to increase their sexual experience and explore themselves before being tied down by marriage.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Media and American adolescent sexuality. TIME Magazine. Retrieved Relating Difficulty. What does it mean? ABC News.
Hookups have replaced casual sex and even dating on many college campuses over the years, but as is so often the case when sex is discussed, it's not altogether clear what everybody is talking about when they say "hookup. Researchers at the University of Montana found so many different definitions among the students they studied that they had to come up with a precise definition to be sure everybody was talking about the same thing.
New York Times. Among the children, hooking up was always a sexual experience, but the nature and extent of what they did could vary widely. Review of General Psychology. There's an awful lot wrong with moral panic stories about "hookup culture" on campus [ Examining differences in geosocial networking app use and sexual risk behavior of emerging adults.
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February Monitor on Psychology. American Psychological Association. New York University Press. Express Milwaukee. Berkeley, California: Seal Press. Journal of Sex Research. Mass Communication and Society. Journal of Adolescent Research. NBC News. She welcomed the show of support. Officers are exhausted from long, hot shifts and hurt by the verbal and physical attacks, she said. They also understand the anger and frustration roiling the public, but she said the acrimony is misdirected.
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